Explainable AI (xAI) for Anatomic Pathology.
Tosun AB, Pullara F, Becich MJ, Taylor DL, Fine JL, Chennubhotla SC. Explainable AI (xAI) for Anatomic Pathology. Adv Anat Pathol. 2020 Jul;27(4):241-250. doi: 10.1097/PAP.0000000000000264.PMID: 32541594 Review.
Pathologists are adopting whole slide images (WSIs) for diagnosis, thanks to recent FDA approval of WSI systems as class II medical devices. In response to new market forces and recent technology advances outside of pathology, a new field of computational pathology has emerged that applies artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning algorithms to WSIs. Computational pathology has great potential for augmenting pathologists' accuracy and efficiency, but there are important concerns regarding trust of AI due to the opaque, black-box nature of most AI algorithms. In addition, there is a lack of consensus on how pathologists should incorporate computational pathology systems into their workflow. To address these concerns, building computational pathology systems with explainable AI (xAI) mechanisms is a powerful and transparent alternative to black-box AI models. xAI can reveal underlying causes for its decisions; this is intended to promote safety and reliability of AI for critical tasks such as pathology diagnosis. This article outlines xAI enabled applications in anatomic pathology workflow that improves efficiency and accuracy of the practice. In addition, we describe HistoMapr-Breast, an initial xAI enabled software application for breast core biopsies. HistoMapr-Breast automatically previews breast core WSIs and recognizes the regions of interest to rapidly present the key diagnostic areas in an interactive and explainable manner. We anticipate xAI will ultimately serve pathologists as an interactive computational guide for computer-assisted primary diagnosis.